Consumers have a variety of enduring images of themselves. These images are associated with personality - An individual's consumption reflects that self-image.
Therefore, consumers select products / services congruent (in-line) with this self-image.
Freudian Psycho-Analytic Theory
Unconscious needs or drives are at the heart of human motivation. Sex Sells.
Sigmund Freud proposed that our personalities are heavily and unconsciously shaped by our childhood experiences (Nurture).
Id (Impulse) / The 'I':
Warehouse of primitive or instinctive needs for which individual seeks immediate satisfaction. (Food, Sex, etc.)
Superego (Brake) / The 'Over-I':
Individual's internal expression of society's moral and ethical codes of conduct which drives the individual to fulfill their needs in a socially acceptable manner. (Conscience)
Ego (Balance) / The 'It':
Individual's conscious control that balances the demand of Id and Superego.
Buying decisions are a reflection of consumers' personality. They are unaware of the underlying reasons for buying what they buy.
Neo-Freudian Personality Theory
Social Relationships are fundamental to the formation and development of personality.
Karen Horney proposed 3 Personality Groups: Compliant, Aggressive, Detached (CAD).
Compliant: Move Towards People
- Desire to be loved, approved and appreciated
- Like popular brands
Aggressive: Move Against People
- Desire for prestige, power, and achievement
- Like masculine brands
Detached: Move Away From People
- Desire for independence and freedom
- Not brand conscious